Tuesday, December 30, 2008

The Durutti Column


The Durutti Column
"Alan introduced Tony to me. Tony came round to see me, never having heard me play. Alan brought Tony round three times before I finally agreed to take part and put a band together with other musicians. I insisted that I would have control and all kinds of ridiculous things, which was just silly."
Vini Reilly explains in his most recent interview (for Scream City fanzine) how The Durutti Column was born.
Alan was Alan Erasmus and Tony was Tony Wilson. In 1978 they were looking for a band their new record label, Factory Records.
The Durutti Column featuring Vini Reilly, a classically-trained pianist and virtuoso guitarist, took their name from Spanish revolutionary Buenaventura Durruti and the cartoon of Two Situationist Cowboys in the comic Le Retour De La Colonne Durutti (1966). Centred around Reilly, the then five-piece band recorded two tracks for FAC-2 A Factory Sample, the first ever music release on Factory Records. Vini, not happy with the band or the punk-styled recording, then walked out because it was "complete and total rubbish". Alan and Tony persuaded Vini to return, saying "you are The Durutti Column" and the rest is history.
To this day, The Durutti Column is still essentially Vini Reilly. But whilst he is the constant, legendary Manchester musician, nay institution, Bruce Mitchell (ex-Alberto Y Trios Lost Paranoias) has been the drummer since the seminal album LC (1981). A succession of other guests has augmented the line-up over the years, notably John Metcalfe (The Duke Quartet), Tim Kellett (Olive, Simply Red) and Keir Stewart (Durutti producer and more since 1997).
Always at the forefront of technology thanks to Factory's innovative (but sometimes misguided policies), The Durutti Column released the first cd-only popular music album with their Domo Arigato (1985) live album recorded live in Tokyo. Factory predicted "No vinyl within 5 years" but what did they know!? Later, The Guitar and Other Machines (1988) was the first ever commercially available album to be released on Digital Audio Tape. Perversely it was also promoted with a 7" flexi-disc - a relic of a bygone age. In 1995, the Factory Too album Sex and Death also appeared in interactive CD-ROM format. More recently, and keeping up their record of having appeared on every incarnation of Factory Records, their debut for Tony Wilson's all-too-shortlived F4 Records, was the digital download-only E.P. Heaven Sent (It Was Called Digital. It Was Heaven Sent) (2004). The launch of this release was celebrated with a live webcast of a gig from Shetland.
Throughout it all, musical experimentation has always been the keynote of The Durutti Column's music. Able to flit from Classical on Without Mercy (1984) to House on Obey The Time (1990) via Opera on Vini Reilly (1990), it has never been possible to pin Vin down. Famously, he did some sterling work on Morrissey's debut album Viva Hate. But, when asked to work on the follow-up, he declined because Morrissey didn't want to take it to the next level, to experiment.
The new album by The Durutti Column Sunlight To Blue... Blue To Blackness is released on 23 June 2008 on Kooky Records.

http://www.thedurutticolumn.com/discography/1996/11/return-of-durutti-column-factory-once.html
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The Durutti Column are an English post-punk band formed in 1978 in Manchester, England. The band is an ongoing project of guitarist (and occasional pianist) Vini Reilly who is often accompanied by drummer Bruce Mitchell.

Early history

In 1978 Tony Wilson and Alan Erasmus, later to become partners in Factory Records, built a band around the remnants of Fast Breeder: drummer Chris Joyce and guitarist Dave Rowbotham. Within days they added Reilly, guitarist for Manchester punk rock band Ed Banger and The Nosebleeds, as well as vocalist Phil Rainford, keyboardist Stephen Hopkins and bassist Tony Bowers, although Rainford le ft in July of that year. The band played at the Factory club (organised by their managers), and recorded two pieces for the first Factory Records release, the compilation A Factory Sample (a double 7" also featuring Joy Division, John Dowie and Cabaret Voltaire). Just prior to recording a debut album, the group broke up after a dispute about Wilson and Erasmus's choice of producer, Martin Hannett. Most of the other members apart from Reilly went on to form The Mothmen, and Joyce and Bowers later became members of Simply Red. The D urutti Column effectively became Reilly's solo project from then on; drummer Bruce Mitchell and other musicians have occasionally contributed to recordings and live performances, and Mitchell and Wilson managed the group throughout their career on Factory and for many years afterwards. The band's name is derived from a misspelling of the name Buenaventura Durruti, who led a column of anarchists during the Spanish Civil War (the Durruti Column). A 1967 Situationist International poster included the phrase "The Return of t he Durutti Column", which eventually became the title of the group's first album.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Durutti_Column
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*The Durruti Column was the most famous column of anarchist fighters during the Spanish Civil War. It was led by Buenaventura Durruti from mid-1936 until his death on November 20 of that year. The column was instrumental in holding Madrid for the Republic in the face of the falangist uprising. It had a French-speaking unit, the Sébastien Faure Century, as well as the Sacco and Vanzetti Century (formed by American anarchists) and the Erich Mühsam Century (made up of German anarchists).[1] The Column was eventually, like the rest of the anarchist and socialist units, incorporated into the general army of the Republic.*
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Durutti Column - The Return of the Durutti Column(1979)

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Durutti Column-Ic(1981)
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Buenaventura Durruti

Buenaventura Durruti Dumange (July 14, 1896 – November 20, 1936) was a central figure of Spanish anarchism during the period leading up to and including the Spanish Civil War.
Early life
Durruti was born in León, Spain. He started work at the age of 14 in the railway yard in León. In 1917 the socialist Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT) called a strike in which Durruti was an active and prominent participant. The government brought in the Spanish Army to suppress the strike: they killed 70 people and injured more than 500 workers. 2,000 of the strikers were imprisoned without trial or legal process. Durruti escaped to France. During his exile until 1920, Durruti worked in Paris as a mechanic. He was persuaded to go to Barcelona to organise the workers there. In Catalonia, with Juan García Oliver, Francisco Ascaso, and a number of other anarchists, he founded Los Solidarios ("Solidarity"). Members of this group attempted unsuccessfully to blow up King Alfonso XIII. In 1923 the group was also implicated in the assassination of Cardinal Juan Soldevilla y Romero, as reprisals for the killing of Salvador Seguí. They also, after Primo de Rivera had taken the power, organized a somewhat large-scale attack on the military barracks in Barcelona and on the border stations to France. The attack, though, was unsuccessful and quite a few anarchists were killed. The series of defeats made Durruti, Ascaso and Oliver flee to Argentina (in fact, they travelled in all of Latin America, including Cuba). Durruti and his companions returned to Spain and Barcelona, becoming an influential militant within two of the largest anarchist organisations in Spain at the time, the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI), and of the anarcho-syndicalist trade union Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT). The influence Durruti's group gained inside the CNT caused a split, with a moderate faction under Ángel Pestaña leaving in 1931 (becoming the Syndicalist Party).
In the Civil War
Working closely with his comrades in the FAI and CNT Durruti helped to co-ordinate armed resistance to the military rising of Francisco Franco, an effort which was to prove vital in preventing General Goded's attempt to militarily seize Barcelona. During the battle for the Atarazanas Barracks, Durruti's close friend and fellow militant Ascaso was shot dead. Less than a week later, on July 24, 1936 Durruti led over 3000 armed anarchists (later to become known as the Durruti Column) from Barcelona to Zaragoza. After a brief and bloody battle at Caspe (in Aragon), they halted at Pina de Ebro, on the advice of a regular army officer, postponing an assault on Zaragoza. In November 1936, Durruti led 4000 militiamen to Madrid to aid the besieged Republican defenders of that city. On November 19, he was killed while leading a counter attack in the Casa de Campo area (See also Battle of Madrid). According to author Anthony Beevor (The Spanish Civil War, 1982), Durruti was killed when a companion's machine pistol went off by mistake. At the time, the anarchists claimed he had been hit by an enemy sniper's bullet "for reasons of morale and propaganda". Another view, detailed in Durruti: The People Armed by Abel Paz, takes a more personal account of Durruti's death. Instead of being killed by a fellow soldier he was killed by distant gunfire near the Clinical Hospital in University City (Madrid), taken over by Moroccan fighters (recruited by Franco) and the Guardia Civil. After a fight to regain control and contact was re-established with troops cut off from communications, Durruti returned temporarily to the Miguel-Angel barracks to issue orders. A message from Liberto Roig arrived informing Durruti that the Clinical Hospital was in the process of being evacuated. Alarmed, he asked his Chauffeur Julio Grave to get his car and leave immediately for the Hospital. His chauffeur gives the following testimonial: "[...] We passed a little group of hotels which are at the bottom of this avenue (Queen Victoria Avenue) and we turned towards the right. Arriving at the big street, we saw a group of militiamen coming towards us. Durruti thought it was some young men who were leaving the front. This area was completely destroyed by the bullets coming from the Clinical Hospital, which had been taken during these days by the Moors and which dominated all the environs. Durruti had me stop the car which I parked in the angle of one of those little hotels as a precaution. Durruti got out of the auto and went towards the militiamen. He asked them where they were going. As they didn't know what to say, he ordered them to return to the front. The militiamen obeyed and Durruti returned towards the car. The rain of bullets became stronger. From the vast red heap of the clinical Hospital, the Moors and the Guardia Civil were shooting furiously. Reaching the door of the machine, Durruti collapsed, a bullet through his chest." He died November 20th 1936 in a makeshift operating theatre set up in what was formerly the Ritz Hotel at the age of 40. The bullet was lodged in the heart, the diagnosis was "death caused by pleural hemorrhage". The doctors wrote a report in which the path of the bullet and the character of the wound was recorded but not the calibre of the bullet, since they hadn't removed it and there was no autopsy. Durruti's body was transported across country to Barcelona for his funeral. Over a quarter of a million people filled the streets to accompany the cortege during its route to the cemetery on Montjuich. It was the last large-scale public demonstration of anarchist strength of numbers during the bitter and bloody Civil War.
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buenaventura_Durruti
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On July 24 the Durruti Column, made up of 2,000 militiamen leaves Barcelona towards Zaragoza. Minutes before departing Canadian journalist Von Passen has an historic interview with Durruti titled: "Two million anarchists fight for the Revolution". Some of Durruti's statements were:

"There are only two roads, victory for the working class, freedom, or victory for the fascists which means tyranny. Both combatants know what's in store for the loser. We are ready to end fascism once and for all, even in spite of the Republican government."

"No government fights fascism to destroy it. When the bourgeoisie sees that power is slipping out of its hands, it brings up fascism to hold onto their privileges."

The column overwhelmed the enemy in a few days. Local party bosses, large landowners and tycoons escaped in a panic. The first serious combat was the taking of Caspe. In a few days they were 20 km from Zaragoza. Finally the front stabilized at Pina de Ebro due to lack of weapons for the assault on Zaragoza. The column's general headquarters was installed in Bujaraloz. From there it promoted the creation of the Council of Aragon, against the wishes of the CNT's directive that was beginning to cooperate with the republican government. With respect to the ruin caused by combats Durruti said to Von Passen:

"We have always lived in shantytowns and if we destroy we are also capable of building. It was us who built the palaces and the cities. The workers can build them again, and better ones; we are not afraid of ruins, we have a new world here in our hearts".

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http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/DurrutiColumnEarly.htm


Sunday, December 28, 2008

FREE-PALESTINE


Το ισραηλινό κράτος σκορπίζει ξανά το θάνατο

Το Ισραήλ βομβαρδίζει από το πρωί του Σαββάτου 27/12 την από καιρό αποκλεισμένη Λωρίδα της Γάζας, σπέρνοντας τρόμο στους κατοίκους της και προκαλώντας εκατόμβες νεκρών. Είναι ένα ακόμα, βάρβαρο και απροκάλυπτο, επεισόδιο της 60χρονης κατοχής και καταπίεσης του παλαιστινιακού λαού που τιμωρείται επειδή αντιστέκεται.

ΟΛΟΙ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΑ ΣΤΗ ΣΥΓΚΕΝΤΡΩΣΗ ΔΙΑΜΑΡΤΥΡΙΑΣ ΣΤΙΣ 6 ΤΟ ΑΠΟΓΕΥΜΑ ΕΞΩ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΙΣΡΑΗΛΙΝΗ ΠΡΕΣΒΕΙΑ.

Saturday, December 27, 2008

URGENT!!!

The secretary of the Union of Housekeepers and Cleaners of Greece was attacked with sulfuric acid !

Konstantina Kuneva is a Bulgarian migrant worker in Athens. She is also the secretary of the Union of Housekeepres and Cleaners. On the 24th of December, she has been attacked with sulfuric acid in front of her home by two men. She has been admitted in a hospital in a critical condition. She has burns on her face, head, hands and back and there is a possibility that she will lose her sight.

It is suspected that the attack is a punishment for her strong union activity. The Union is one of the most active workers’ unions within what euphemistically is called precarious labour: in other words, Konstantina is a migrant and a severely underpaid and unprotected worker, who decided to join a union in order to struggle against the inhuman conditions imposed to her and her fellow workers.

Behind the attack are her employers and their heavies, who have been threatening Konstantina and other women for their activity in the union.

This is the bank account for raising money to help Konstantina in her very difficult condition.

5012 019021 277 PIREOS BANK

The IBAN is GR 28 0172 0120 0050 1201 9021 277 and BIC is PIRBGRAA

DECHEVA ELENA

KUEVA KOSTADINKA NIKOLOVA

Friday, December 26, 2008

URGENT-EΠΕΙΓΟΝ!!!

    Επείγον!!! Οικονομική ενίσχυση για την συνδικαλίστρια Κωνσταντίνα Κούνεβα


ΔΙΑΔΩΣΤΕ ΤΟ!!!

ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ – ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ

Αυτός είναι ο λογαριασμός για την οικονομική ενίσχυση της συνδικαλίστριας Κωνσταντίνας Κούνεβα που δέχτηκε την δολοφονική επίθεση με βιτριόλι από τους μπράβους των εργολάβων σαν τιμωρία για τη δράση της ενάντια στην εργοδοτική αυθαιρεσία.

5012 019021 277 Τράπεζα Πειραιώς

DECHEVA ELENA KUEVA KOSTADINKA NIKOLOVA

Να καταθέσουμε την ενίσχυση μας χωρίς δεύτερη σκέψη και τσιγκουνιές. Όχι από το περίσσευμα μας. Ας μας λείψουν τα χρήματα. Είναι θέμα στοιχειώδους ταξικής και κοινωνικής αλληλεγγύης. Είναι δήλωση ότι η εργοδοτική τρομοκρατία ΔΕΝ ΘΑ ΠΕΡΑΣΕΙ.

Οι νονοί τηςνύχτας και της μέρας θα μας βρουν απέναντι τους!


ΔΙΑΔΩΣΤΕ ΤΟ!!!

Η Κωνσταντίνα είναι γραμματέας του Παναττικού Σωματείου Καθαριστριών και Οικιακών Εργαζομένων, το οποίο είναι ίσως το πιο ζωντανό σωματείο των επισφαλώς εργαζομένων στην Ελλάδα, που αγωνίζεται σκληρά και ηρωικά για την υπεράσπιση των εργαζομένων που βρίσκονται στην πιο σκληρή εκμετάλλευση και τη μεγαλύτερη εργοδοτική τρομοκρατία, και οργανώνει Ελληνίδες και μετανάστριες - κατά κύριο λόγο γυναίκες.

Στη Βουλγαρία ήταν ιστορικός επιστήμονας και στην Ελλάδα ήρθε όταν ο γιος της χρειάστηκε να υποβληθεί σε σοβαρή εγχείρηση. Σήμερα ζει μαζί του (πάει 5η δημοτικού) και με την μητέρα της στα Α. Πετράλωνα.

Ας ενεργοποιήσουμε την κοινωνική και ταξική αλληλεγγύη μας και ας βοηθήσουμε ώστε τουλάχιστον η Κωνσταντίνα να μην έχει να ανησυχεί για τα λεφτά. Έχει εκατοντάδες άλλα πράγματα να απασχολούν αυτήν την οικογένεια και τις συναδέλφισσες της.

Όμως ας μην νομίζουμε ότι βάζοντας μερικά χρήματα κάναμε το χρέος μας.

Η απάντηση πρέπει και θα δοθεί στους δρόμους, στους εργασιακούς χώρους και τα σωματεία.

Χρειάζεται έμπρακτη αλληλεγγύη και δράση και όχι δάκρυα.

Wednesday, December 24, 2008

ΝΕΟΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΚΑΛΑΝΤΑ 2008



Δακρυγόνα και φωτιές σκορπισαν παντού
κάθε σπίτι και φωλιά οι μπάτσοι είναι παντού
Έι!

Δακρυγόνα και φωτιές σε κάθε γειτονιά
οι νέοι εξεγείρονται, βοηθάτε ρε παιδιά!

Δέντρο φωτεινό, καίει λαμπερό
Φέρνει ένα μήνυμα από το λαό.
μες στη σιγαλιά ακούμε τρία μπαμ
και κάνει η αγάπη την καρδιά γροθιά.


Δακρυγόνα και φωτιές στο μικρό χωριό
και χτυπάν αλύπητα νέους στο ψαχνό
Έι!
Δακρυγόνα και φωτιές σκόρπισαν παντού
κι η βουλή απέχει μόλις ένα ντου!

Κόκκινες μπογιές, οι πέτρες ειν' πολλές
τα κανάλια δείχνουν τις ίδιες παπαριές
Τρέχουν τα παιδιά σε κάθε γειτονιά,
φωνάζουνε συνθήματα και σπαν στα πεταχτά

Δακρυγόνα και φωτιές στο έξωτερικό
Πολύς κόσμος στους δρόμους κάτι τρέχει εδώ
Έι!

Δακρυγόνα και φωτιές χρειάζεται αλλαγή
Στον πλανήτη ας δώσουμε ακόμα μια στροφή!
(τρίγωνα κάλαντα έξω απ'τη βουλή
τα ΜΑΤ θα δουν χριστούγεννα φορώντας τη στολή!
Χούι!)

CLICK HERE ΓΙΑ ΟΛΑ ΤΑ ΚΑΛΑΝΤΑ

Tuesday, December 23, 2008

MEREDITH MONK


Meredith Monk is a composer, singer, director/choreographer and creator of new opera, music theater works, films and installations. A pioneer in what is now called “extended vocal technique” and “interdisciplinary performance,” Monk creates works that thrive at the intersection of music and movement, image and object, light and sound in an effort to discover and weave together new modes of perception. Her groundbreaking exploration of the voice as an instrument, as an eloquent language in and of itself, expands the boundaries of musical composition, creating landscapes of sound that unearth feelings, energies, and memories for which we have no words. She has alternately been proclaimed as a “magician of the voice” and “one of America’s coolest composers.” During a career that spans more than 40 years she has been acclaimed by audiences and critics as a major creative force in the performing arts.

Since graduating Sarah Lawrence College in 1964, Monk has received numerous awards including the prestigious MacArthur “Genius” Award in 1995, two Guggenheim Fellowships, a Brandeis Creative Arts Award, three “Obies” (including an award for Sustained Achievement), two Villager Awards, two “Bessie” awards for Sustained Creative Achievement, the 1986 National Music Theatre Award, the 1992 Dance Magazine Award, and a 2005 ASCAP Concert Music Award. In 2006 she was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and named a United States Artists Fellow, and holds honorary Doctor of Arts degrees from Bard College, the University of the Arts, The Juilliard School, the San Francisco Art Institute and the Boston Conservatory. Her recordings Dolmen Music (ECM New Series) and Our Lady of Late: The Vanguard Tapes (Wergo) were honored with the German Critics Prize for Best Records of 1981 and 1986. Her music has been heard in numerous films, including La Nouvelle Vague by Jean-Luc Godard and The Big Lebowski by Joel and Ethan Coen. Monk’s publishing relationship with Boosey & Hawkes, begun in 2000, has helped make her scores available to a wider public.

In 1968 Ms. Monk founded The House, a company dedicated to an interdisciplinary approach to performance. In 1978 she formed Meredith Monk & Vocal Ensemble to expand her musical textures and forms. She has made more than a dozen recordings, most of which are on the ECM New Series label. Her music has been performed by numerous soloists and groups including The Chorus of the San Francisco Symphony, Musica Sacra, The Pacific Mozart Ensemble, Double Edge, Björk, and Bang On A Can All-Stars, among others.

Monk is a pioneer in site-specific performance, creating works such as Juice: A Theater Cantata In 3 Installments (1969) and American Archeology #1: Roosevelt Island (1994). She is also an accomplished filmmaker who has made a series of award-winning films including Ellis Island (1981) and her first feature, Book Of Days (1988), which was aired on PBS, shown at the New York Film Festival and selected for the Whitney Museum’s Biennial. Both films were released on DVD in February 2007. A retrospective art exhibition, Meredith Monk: Archeology of an Artist, opened at The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts at Lincoln Center in 1996. Other recent art exhibits are comprised of a major installation, Art Performs Life at The Walker Art Center, a show, Shrines at the Frederieke Taylor / TZ’ Art Gallery, inclusion in the 2002 Biennial at the Whitney Museum, ev+a 2002 Exhibition at Limerick City Gallery of Art and group exhibits Show People at Exit Art and Between Thought and Sound: Graphic Notation in Contemporary Music at The Kitchen. A monograph, Meredith Monk, edited by Deborah Jowitt was released by Johns Hopkins Press in 1997.

In October 1999 Monk performed a Vocal Offering for His Holiness, the Dalai Lama as part of the World Festival of Sacred Music in Los Angeles. In July 2000 her music was honored by a three concert retrospective entitled Voice Travel as part of the Lincoln Center Festival. Her most recent CD, mercy, was released on the ECM New Series label in November 2002. Monk’s first orchestra piece, Possible Sky (commissioned by Michael Tilson Thomas for the New World Symphony), premiered in April 2003 in Miami and was performed by the Hamburg Symphony in 2006. Stringsongs, her first composition for string quartet (commissioned by the Kronos Quartet) had its world premiere at the Barbican Center in January 2005. Recent projects include a new work for the Western Wind Vocal Ensemble, and recording the music from her latest music theater work, impermanence, slated for release in 2008. Monk is also publishing a piano album of her scores and working on a new piece for her Vocal Ensemble in collaboration with visual artist Ann Hamilton. http://www.meredithmonk.org/monk/index.html

- Author: Monk, Meredith
Date: 1975-07-23 00:00:00
Recorded by: Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics

-key(1978)

-dolmen music(1981)

-book of days(1990)

Saturday, December 13, 2008

Greece: teenager uprising, big general strike, but the left parties refuse to give a political solution


After four days of struggle we can now start to draw some first clear conclusions. Without any doubt this movement deserves the title of "teenager uprising". We have here a new generation of tens of thousands of school students erupting in a huge explosion, the biggest for 20 years, if not even more, in Greece. We have clear symptoms of an instinctive revolutionary spirit, and a clear tendency to target not only the present bourgeois government but also the bourgeois state and the capitalist system as a whole.
http://www.marxist.com/greece-teenager-uprising-big-general-strike.htm

Sunday, December 7, 2008

BLACK SUNDAY AT ATHENS (A COP KILLS AN INNOCENT 15 YEARS OLD BOY )

One fifteen years old Greek student was killed tonight by the Greek police, at 21:50 Standard Greek Time, in Exarhia Square. The policemen claimed that the fifteen year old was part of a group which surrounded their police car and tried to break the windows. The police claims that they used at first flashbang grenades to force the crowd away from the police car. Failing that, one of the policemen fired a bullet from his gun, which alledgedly ricocceded against a marque and struct the fifteen year old in the abdomen.
http://www.indymedia-letzebuerg.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=14230&Itemid=27
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Thursday, November 27, 2008

KLAUS SCHULZE (+full discography)


Klaus Schulze (born August 4, 1947) is a German electronic music composer and musician. He also used the alias Richard Wahnfried. He was briefly a member of the electronic bands Tangerine Dream and Ash Ra Tempel before launching a solo career consisting of more than 40 albums (more than 110 CDs) lasting over 3 decades.
In 1969, Klaus Schulze was the drummer of one of the early incarnations of Tangerine Dream for their debut album Electronic Meditation. In 1970 he left this group to form Ash Ra Tempel with Manuel Göttsching. In 1971, he chose again to leave a newly-formed group after only one album, this time to mount a solo career. In 1972, Schulze released his debut album Irrlicht with organ and a recording of an orchestra filtered almost beyond recognition. Despite the lack of synthesizers, this proto-ambient work is regarded as a milestone in electronic music. The follow up, Cyborg, was similar but added the EMS Synthi A synthesizer. He has had a prolific career, with more than 40 original albums to his name since Irrlicht, some highlights being 1976's Moondawn, 1979's Dune, and 1995's double-album In Blue (featuring one long track with electric guitar by his pal Manuel Göttsching of Ash Ra Tempel). He often takes German events as a starting point in his compositions, particularly on his album "X" (the title signifying it was his tenth album) in 1978 which was subtitled "Six Musical Biographies", including such notables as Ludwig II of Bavaria, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. His use of the pseudonym Richard Wahnfried indicates his interest in Richard Wagner, which also informs other albums of his music, notably Timewind. Throughout the 1970s he worked mostly in the musical vein of the above-mentioned Tangerine Dream, albeit with far lighter sequencer lines and a more reflective, dreamy edge, not unlike the ambient music of contemporary Brian Eno. Some of his lighter albums are appreciated by new age music fans, but Schulze has always denied connections to this genre. Klaus Schulze had a more organic sound than other electronic artists of the time. Often he would throw in decidedly non-electronic sounds such as acoustic guitar and a male operatic voice in Blackdance, or a cello in Dune and Trancefer. Schulze developed a Minimoog technique that sounds uncannily like an electric guitar, which is quite impressive in concert. In the 1980s Schulze moved from analog to digital instruments, and his work accordingly became less experimental and more accessible. Although the switch to purely digital recording and instruments is evident in the style of Dig It (1980) It was not until the release of Trancefer (1981) that the shift in style became evident. Trancefer was far more obviously reliant on sequencers than previous recordings, and the resultant effect transformed Schulze's style from gentle melodic journeys to and ever growing crescendo of music consisting of multi layered rhythmical passages. This is particularly evident in the Trancefer's first track "A few moments after Trancefer", although the second track "Silent Running" is more reminiscent of Schulze's earlier works. This newer style can also be found in Schulze's next release Audentity. Both "Cellistica" and "Spielglocken" are composed in a similar, sequencer based, style as Trancefer, but this is certainly not the case of all of Audentity's tracks, indeed "Sebastian in Traum" hints towards the Operatic style to be found in some of Schulze's much later work. The predominance of sequencing can also be found in the follow up live album Dziekuje Poland Live '83, although it should be noted that many of its tracks are re-workings of those to be found on Audentity. Schulze's next studio-based album Angst (soundtrack to the namesake 1983 film) moved away from the harshness of sharp, heavily sequenced style of the 3 previous albums and, once again, had the more "organic feel" of earlier recordings. Another highlight of this era was En=Trance with the dreamy cut "FM Delight". The album Miditerranean Pads marked the beginning of very complex percussion arrangements that continued into the next two decades. Starting with Beyond Recall, the first half of the 1990s was the notorious "sample" period, when Schulze used a variety of pre-recorded sounds of screeching birds and sensuous female moans in his studio albums and live performances. Sampling was such an unpopular diversion that when In Blue was released in 1995 without samples it was hailed as a return to form. The decade also saw the release of copious amounts of previously unreleased material, of varying quality, in several limited-edition boxed sets. Some live recordings were discovered on pristine but forgotten reels of tape which had been used to provide echo in concerts. Recently Schulze began incorporating elements of jazz and classical music, working with more contemporary techno dance music such as trance, and creating two opera, the second still awaiting release. Also, in 2005 he began re-releasing his classic solo and Wahnfried albums with bonus tracks of unreleased material recorded at roughly the same time as the original works. June 2007, Klaus Schulze released a new album entitled Kontinuum. Both Klaus Schulze and Lisa Gerrard (Dead Can Dance) have produced an album called Farscape, released in July 2008. Later that month, Schulze and Gerrard appeared at an open-air music festival on the Loreley rock in Germany.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klaus_Schulze
-

Klaus Schulze is a visionary. A dreamer. And he is well known for making his dreams come true. For a long time now he has wanted to collaborate with extremely gifted vocalist Lisa Gerrard. Now he made his wish come true. The result is the new double album called Farscape . Never before have you experienced Schulze, whose oeuvre is full of emotionally gripping music, in a more emotional framework. Schulze is an institution, a living legend, he was member of electronic pop icons such as Tangerine Dream and Ash Ra Tempel and since 1972 he has released a plethora of solo albums. He has provided remixes for a variety of interesting bands and he has collaborated with a large cast of other tallented and innovative artists. The Moog specialist and confessed Wagner fanatic has been a flickering will-o-the-wisp within the music scene for nearly four decades. http://www.zona-musical.com/postt99648.html

KLAUS SCHULZE-LISA GERRARD "Farscape"

Disc: 1

http://www.megaupload.com/it/?d=PC4KF8GH

1. Liquid Coincidence 1
2. Liquid Coincidence 2
3. Liquid Coincidence 3
Disc: 2


http://www.megaupload.com/it/?d=22MWKPE2

1. Liquid Coincidence 4
2. Liquid Coincidence 5
3. Liquid Coincidence 6
4. Liquid Coincidence 7

Pass:dadobit66

-
download full discography here


Origin: German
Genre: Experimental, Ambient, Electronic
Years: 1973 - 2007
Format: APE (image + .cue) + Flac (image + .cue)


Irrlicht 1972 - APE+cue 
First Release: 1972, on Ohr
Performed by: Klaus Schulze & Colloquium Musica Orchestra
Total Time: 74:27
1. (00:23:23) Klaus Schulze - Satz Ebene
2. (00:05:39) Klaus Schulze - Satz Gewitter
3. (00:21:27) Klaus Schulze - Satz Exil Sils Maria 

Cyborg 1973 - Flac+cue 
Recorded: Tracks 1-4: February to July 1973, Berlin
First Release: October 1973, on Ohr
Performed by: Klaus Schulze
Total Time: #1: 72:14 #2: 75:28
1. (00:23:50) Klaus Schulze - Synphära
2. (00:25:49) Klaus Schulze - Conphära
1. (00:22:49) Klaus Schulze - Chromengel
2. (00:24:51) Klaus Schulze - Neuronengesang 

Blackdance 1974 - APE+cue 
Recorded: May 1974, Berlin
First Release: 1974, on Brain and Virgin
Performed by: Klaus Schulze & Ernst Walter Siemon (vocal)
Total Time: 73:33
1. (00:17:14) Klaus Schulze - Way of Changes
2. (00:08:23) Klaus Schulze - Some Velvet Phasing
3. (00:22:41) Klaus Schulze - Voices of Syn 

Picture Music 1975 - Flac+cue 
Recorded: Autumn 1974, Berlin
First Release: January 1975, on Brain
Performed by: Klaus Schulze
Total Time: 79:57
1. (00:23:55) Klaus Schulze - Totem
2. (00:23:02) Klaus Schulze - Mental Door
3. (00:33:00) Klaus Schulze - C'est pas la m?me chose 

Timewind 1975 - APE+cue 
Recorded: March/June 1975, Berlin
First Release: August 1975, on Brain and Virgin
Performed by: Klaus Schulze
Total Time: 59:13
1. (00:30:32) Klaus Schulze - Bayreuth return
2. (00:28:44) Klaus Schulze - Wahnfried 1883 

Moondawn 1976 - Flac+cue 
Recorded: January 1976, Frankfurt
First Release: 16 April 1976, on Brain
Performed by: Klaus Schulze & Harald Grosskopf (drumkit)
Total Time: 73:48
1. (00:27:12) Klaus Schulze - Floating
2. (00:25:36) Klaus Schulze - Mindphaser
3. (00:21:11) Klaus Schulze - Floating Sequence

Mirage 1977 - Flac+cue 
Recorded: January 1977, Hambühren and Frankfurt
First Release: April 1977, on Brain and Island
Performed by: Klaus Schulze
Total Time: 77:10
1. (00:28:19) Klaus Schulze - Velvet Voyage
2. (00:29:17) Klaus Schulze - Crystal Lake
3. (00:19:40) Klaus Schulze - In Cosa Crede Chi Non Crede? 

Body Love 1977 - APE+cue 
Recorded: End of 1976, Frankfurt and Bochum
First Release: February 1977, on Metronome
Performed by: Klaus Schulze & Harald Grosskopf (drumkit)
Total Time: 75:10
1. (00:13:43) Klaus Schulze - Stardancer
2. (00:11:49) Klaus Schulze - Blanche
3. (00:27:13) Klaus Schulze - P.T.O.
4. (00:22:30) Klaus Schulze - Lasse Braun (Bonus Track) 

X 1978 - APE+cue 
Recorded: Summer 1978, Frankfurt
First Release: September 1978, on Brain
Performed by: Klaus Schulze & Harald Grosskopf (drumkit) 
& Wolfgang Tiepold (cello & conductor) & Small string orchestra
Total Time: #1: 79:45 #2: 79:43
1. (00:24:14) Klaus Schulze - Friedrich Nietzsche
2. (00:05:20) Klaus Schulze - Georg Trakl
3. (00:10:37) Klaus Schulze - Frank Herbert
4. (00:17:58) Klaus Schulze - Friedemann Bach
1. (00:28:23) Klaus Schulze - Ludwig II. von Bayern
2. (00:29:28) Klaus Schulze - Heinrich von Kleist 

Dune 1979 - Flac+cue 
Recorded: April/May 1979, Hambühren
First Release: 1979, on Brain
Performed by: Klaus Schulze & Arthur Brown (vocal)
& Wolfgang Tiepold (cello)
Total Time: 79:26
1. (00:30:27) Klaus Schulze - Dune
2. (00:26:23) Klaus Schulze - Shadows Of Ignorance
3. (00:23:04) Klaus Schulze - Le Mans 

Audentity Deluxe Edition 1983 - Flac+cue 
Recorded: Winter 1982/83, Hambühren
First Release: 1 February 1983, on IC
Performed by: Klaus Schulze & Rainer Bloss (keyboards)
& Wolfgang Tiepold (cello) & Michael Shrieve (percussion)
Total Time: #1: 74:25 #2: 79:54
1. (00:24:33) Klaus Schulze - Cellistica
2. (00:21:30) Klaus Schulze - Spielglocken
3. (00:28:22) Klaus Schulze - Sebastian im Traum
1. (00:05:47) Klaus Schulze - Tango-Saty
2. (00:10:37) Klaus Schulze - Amourage
3. (00:05:12) Klaus Schulze - Opheylissem
4. (00:11:41) Klaus Schulze - Gem 

Angst 1984 - Flac+cue 
Recorded: April, September, October 1983, Munich and Hambühren
First Release: March 1984, on Inteam
Performed by: Klaus Schulze
Total Time: 72:06
1. (00:06:40) Klaus Schulze - Freeze
2. (00:09:41) Klaus Schulze - Pain
3. (00:04:52) Klaus Schulze - Memory
4. (00:08:45) Klaus Schulze - Surrender
5. (00:10:17) Klaus Schulze - Beyond
6. (00:31:42) Klaus Schulze - Silent Survivor 

'Dziekuje Poland' Live '83 (2cd) 1984 - Flac+cue 
Recorded: At concerts in Poland, July 1983. Studio track The 
Midas Hip Hop Touch from the same era
First Release: Autumn 1983, on IC
Performed by: Klaus Schulze Rainer Bloss (keyboards)
Total Time: #1: 75:53 #2: 78:34
CD1
1. (00:26:20) Klaus Schulze & Rainer Bloss - Katovice
2. (00:24:16) Klaus Schulze & Rainer Bloss - Warsaw
CD2
1. (00:21:00) Klaus Schulze, Rainer Bloss - Lodz
2. (00:15:45) Klaus Schulze, Rainer Bloss - Gdansk
3. (00:05:52) Klaus Schulze, Rainer Bloss - Dziekuje 

Dreams 1986 - APE+cue 
First Release: 1 November 1986, on Brain
Performed by: Klaus Schulze & Andreas Grosser (keyboards) 
& Nunu Isa (acoustic guitar) & Ulli Schober (percussion) 
& Ian Wilkinson (vocal) & Harald Asmussen (bass)
Total Time: 79:50
1. (00:09:38) Klaus Schulze - A classical move
2. (00:07:58) Klaus Schulze - Five to four
3. (00:09:27) Klaus Schulze - Dreams
4. (00:04:17) Klaus Schulze - Flexible
5. (00:24:42) Klaus Schulze - Klaustrophony 

Miditerranean Pads 1990 - Flac+cue 
Recorded: Until August 1989, Hambühren
First Release: 28 February 1990, on Brain
Performed by: Klaus Schulze & Georg Stettner (keyboards)
& "Elfi Schulze" (voice)
Total Time: 72:01
1. (00:30:50) - Decent Changes
2. (00:14:15) - Miditerranean Pads
3. (00:25:04) - Percussion Planante

Klaus Schulze: Royal Festival Hall Vol. 1 1992 - APE+cue 
First Release: 9 November 1992, on Virgin
Performed by: Klaus Schulze
Total Time: 69:36
. (00:07:33) Klaus Schulze - Yen - Out Of Limbo
2. (00:04:51) Klaus Schulze - Yen - Pastorale: Awakening
3. (00:01:21) Klaus Schulze - Yen - Lull Before The Storm
4. (00:02:42) Klaus Schulze - Yen - Tempest
5. (00:02:42) Klaus Schulze - Yen - Pastorale Too
6. (00:05:22) Klaus Schulze - Yen - Pastorale And Departure
7. (00:07:27) Klaus Schulze - Yen - Yearning
8. (00:05:30) Klaus Schulze - Yen - Placid Yen
9. (00:02:52) Klaus Schulze - Yen - The Breath Of Life
10. (00:04:08) Klaus Schulze - Yen - Back To Limbo
11. (00:06:57) Klaus Schulze - Silence And Sequence
- Perigee
12. (00:04:57) Klaus Schulze - Silence And Sequence 
- Gentle Wind
13. (21:56:29) Klaus Schulze - Silence And Sequence 
- Fire-riser
14. (22:09:33) Klaus Schulze - Silence And Sequence 
- Clear Water
1. (00:09:12) Klaus Schulze - ANCIENT AMBIANCE 
(Gothic Ground)
2. (00:04:18) Klaus Schulze - ANCIENT AMBIANCE 
(In Days of Yore)
3. (00:06:55) Klaus Schulze - ANCIENT AMBIANCE
(Pavane and Galliard)
4. (00:01:36) Klaus Schulze - ANCIENT AMBIANCE
(Dusty Spiderwebs and a Shourn Monk)
5. (00:05:51) Klaus Schulze - ANCIENT AMBIANCE 
(Basse Danse Join Medieval Maracas)
6. (00:06:38) Klaus Schulze - ANCIENT AMBIANCE (Primeval Murmur)
7. (00:10:19) Klaus Schulze - ANCIENT AMBIANCE 
(Castle Rock: Pedal Away)
8. (00:11:01) Klaus Schulze - ANCHORAGE
9. (00:11:44) Klaus Schulze - VARIATION ON B.F. 

In Blue (2CD) 1995 - APE+cue 
Recorded: November and December 1994, Hambühren
First Release: 28 February 1995, on ZYX
Performed by: Klaus Schulze & Manuel Göttsching 
(electric guitar) on both versions of Return of the Tempel
Total Time: #1: 78:25 #2: 78:57
1. INTO THE BLUE (78:25)
1.INTO THE BLUE (15:24)
2.BLOWIN' THE BLUES AWAY (20:05)
3.BLUE MOODS (04:29)
4.WILD AND BLUE (35:35)
5.OUT OF THE BLUE (02:52)
Disc 2:
1.RETURN OF THE TEMPEL (44:38)
1.MIDNIGHT BLUE (09:46)
2.RETURN OF THE TEMPEL (28:42)
3.BLUE SPIRITS (04:30)
4.TRUE BLUE (01:40) 

Klaus Schulze: Das Wagner Desaster - 1994 - APE+cue 
First Release: 1 December 1994, on ZYX
Performed by: Klaus Schulze
Total Time: #1: 78:45 #2: 75:47
1. (00:28:25) Klaus Schulze - Wagner (Wild Mix)
2. (00:28:36) Klaus Schulze - Nietzsche (Wild Mix)
3. (00:10:00) Klaus Schulze - Entfremdung 
(Wild Mix, Encore Paris)
1. (00:27:58) Klaus Schulze - Liebe (Soft Mix)
2. (00:28:37) Klaus Schulze - Hass (Soft Mix)
3. (21:56:35) Klaus Schulze - Versohnung 
(Soft Mix, Encore Rome) 

Klaus Schulze: Are You Sequenced? 1996 - APE+cue 
First Release: 27 September 1996, on WEA
Performed by: Klaus Schulze
Total Time: #1: 79:56 #2: 77:35
CD1
1. (00:06:28) Klaus Schulze - Welcome to the Moog Brothers
2. (00:04:24) Klaus Schulze - Vocs in the Dark I
3. (00:10:04) Klaus Schulze - Vocs in the Dark II
4. (00:09:40) Klaus Schulze - No Frets - No Bass
5. (00:09:00) Klaus Schulze - Valle de la Luna
6. (00:03:15) Klaus Schulze - Are You Sequenced?
7. (00:07:19) Klaus Schulze - Moogy Baby Goes Solo
8. (21:50:10) Klaus Schulze - Moldanya
9. (00:00:00) Klaus Schulze - Vidanya
10. (00:00:00) Klaus Schulze - The Wizard of Doz
11. (22:19:56) Klaus Schulze - Are We Getting Lost?
CD2
1. (00:17:41) Klaus Schulze - SQ1 
(Essentials by Pete Namlook)
2. (00:08:13) Klaus Schulze - Voices in the Dark 
(Lite Mix by Thomas Fehlmann)
3. (00:08:11) Klaus Schulze - SQ2 
(Extended Mix by Sam Pels)
4. (00:07:33) Klaus Schulze - Flutish Baby (Humate Mix)
5. (00:07:43) Klaus Schulze - SQ3 (
Subsonic Affair Mix by Jorg Schaaf)
6. (00:08:28) Klaus Schulze - Voices in the Dark II 
(Chill Mix by Peter Kuhlmann)
7. (00:04:30) Klaus Schulze - SQ4 (Short Cut by Pete Namlook) 

Moonlake 2005 - Flac+cue 
Recorded: 2003 and 2005.
First Release: 2005, on Synthetic Symphony (a division of SPV)
Performed by: Klaus Schulze
Total Time: 74:04
1. (00:30:09) Klaus Schulze - Playmate in Paradise
2. (00:17:51) Klaus Schulze - Artemis in Jubileo
3. (00:10:40) Klaus Schulze - Same Thoughts Lion
4. (00:15:24) Klaus Schulze - Mephisto 

Kontinuum 2007 - APE+cue 
Recorded: Hambühren, 2006/2007
First Release: 2007, on SPV
Performed by: Klaus Schulze
Total Time: 76:22
1. (00:24:54) Klaus Schulze - Sequencer (from 70 to 07)
2. (00:19:41) Klaus Schulze - Euro Caravan
3. (00:31:47) Klaus Schulze - Thor (Thunder) 

Klaus Schulze + Pete Namlook: The Dark Side Of The Moog 1994 
- APE+cue 
Recorded: September 1994
First Release: 10 October 1994, on FAX
Performed by: Klaus Schulze Pete Namlook
Total Time: 51:21
1. Wish You Were There 51:21 

Klaus Schulze + Pete Namlook: The Dark Side Of The Moog 2 1994 
- APE+cue 
Recorded: November 1994, Frankfurt
First Release: 2 May 1995, on FAX
Performed by: Klaus Schulze Pete Namlook
Total Time: 61:04
1. A Saucerful Of Ambience 61:04 

Klaus Schulze + Pete Namlook: The Dark Side Of The Moog 3 1995 
- APE+cue 
Recorded: November 1994, Frankfurt
First Release: July 1995, on FAX
Performed by: Klaus Schulze Pete Namlook
Total Time: 59:02
1. (00:18:24) - Phantom Heart Brother 1
2. (00:12:13) - Phantom Heart Brother 2
3. (00:10:04) - Phantom Heart Brother 3
4. (00:06:10) - Phantom Heart Brother 4
5. (00:09:10) - Phantom Heart Brother 5
6. (00:02:49) - Phantom Heart Brother 6 

Klaus Schulze + Pete Namlook: The Dark Side Of The Moog 4 1996 
- APE+cue 
Recorded: 1996, Frankfurt
First Release: 1996, on FAX
Performed by: Klaus Schulze Pete Namlook Bill Laswell
Total Time: 60:03
1. (00:06:53) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn I
2. (00:21:46) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn II
3. (00:04:55) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn III
4. (00:02:19) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn IV
5. (00:02:26) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn V
6. (00:07:54) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn VI
7. (00:02:51) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn VII
8. (00:08:50) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn VIII
9. (00:01:51) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn IX
1. (00:06:53) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn I
2. (00:21:46) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn II
3. (00:04:55) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn III
4. (00:02:19) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn IV
5. (00:02:26) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn V
6. (00:07:54) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn VI
7. (00:02:51) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn VII
8. (00:08:50) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn VIII
9. (00:01:51) - Three Pipers at the Gates of Dawn IX 

Klaus Schulze + Pete Namlook: The Dark Side Of The Moog 5 1996
- APE+cue 
Recorded: 1996, Frankfurt
First Release: 1996, on FAX
Performed by: Klaus Schulze Pete Namlook Bill Laswell
Total Time: 60:10
1. (00:00:12) - Psychedelic Brunch I
2. (00:04:29) - Psychedelic Brunch II
3. (00:08:27) - Psychedelic Brunch III
4. (00:03:44) - Psychedelic Brunch IV
5. (00:16:19) - Psychedelic Brunch V
6. (00:08:43) - Psychedelic Brunch VI
7. (00:09:48) - Psychedelic Brunch VII
8. (00:08:23) - Psychedelic Brunch VIII 

Klaus Schulze + Pete Namlook: The Dark Side Of The Moog 6 1997 
- APE+cue 
Recorded: 1997, Traben-Trarbach
First Release: 1997, on FAX
Performed by: Klaus Schulze Pete Namlook Bill Laswell
Total Time: 64:20
1. (00:07:53) - The Final DAT part I
2. (00:07:07) - The Final DAT part II
3. (00:04:40) - The Final DAT part III
4. (00:09:39) - The Final DAT part IV
5. (00:24:08) - The Final DAT part V
6. (00:10:41) - The Final DAT part VI 

Klaus Schulze + Pete Namlook: The Dark Side Of The Moog 7 1998
- APE+cue 
Recorded: 1998, Traben-Trarbach
First Release: 1998, on FAX
Performed by: Klaus Schulze Pete Namlook Bill Laswell
Total Time: 50:00
1. (00:04:59) - Obscured by Klaus I
2. (00:07:23) - Obscured by Klaus II
3. (00:18:59) - Obscured by Klaus III
4. (00:06:34) - Obscured by Klaus IV
5. (00:03:42) - Obscured by Klaus V
6. (00:08:11) - Obscured by Klaus V 

Klaus Schulze + Pete Namlook: The Dark Side Of The Moog 8 1999 
- APE+cue 
Recorded: 1999, live at the 23. Jazz Festival, Hamburg
First Release: 1999, on FAX
Performed by: Klaus Schulze Pete Namlook
Total Time: 76:51
1. (00:25:14) - Careful with the AKS, Peter - Part I
2. (00:01:10) - Careful with the AKS, Peter - Part II
3. (00:06:17) - Careful with the AKS, Peter - Part III
4. (00:08:06) - Careful with the AKS, Peter - Part IV
5. (00:04:34) - Careful with the AKS, Peter - Part V
6. (21:45:31) - Careful with the AKS, Peter - Part VI
7. (00:00:00) - Careful with the AKS, Peter - Part VII
8. (22:16:49) - Careful with the AKS, Peter - Part VIII 

Klaus Schulze + Pete Namlook: The Dark Side Of The Moog 9 2002
- APE+cue 
Recorded: 2002
First Release: 2002, on FAX
Performed by: Klaus Schulze Pete Namlook
Total Time: 54:32
1. (00:19:25) - Set the Controls for the Heart of the Earth. Part I
2. (00:04:26) - Set the Controls for the Heart of the Earth. Part II
3. (00:12:15) - Set the Controls for the Heart of the Earth. Part III
4. (00:01:28) - Set the Controls for the Heart of the Earth. Part IV
5. (00:11:40) - Set the Controls for the Heart of the Earth. Part V
6. (00:05:08) - Set the Controls for the Heart of the Earth. Part VI 

Klaus Schulze + Pete Namlook: The Dark Side Of The Moog 10 2005 
- APE+cue 
Recorded: 2005
First Release: 2005, on FAX
Performed by: Klaus Schulze Pete Namlook
Total Time: 50:20
1. (00:16:50) - Astro Know Me Domina - Part I
2. (00:03:21) - Astro Know Me Domina - Part II
3. (00:04:04) - Astro Know Me Domina - Part III
4. (00:11:49) - Astro Know Me Domina - Part IV
5. (00:08:55) - Astro Know Me Domina - Part V
6. (00:05:10) - Astro Know Me Domina - Part VI  

Sunday, November 16, 2008

17th of November 1973 (Athens,Greece)

On November 14, 1973 students at the Athens Polytechnic (Polytechneion) went on strike and started protesting against the military regime (Regime of the Colonels). As the authorities stood by, the students, calling themselves the "Free Besieged" (Greek: Ελεύθεροι Πολιορκημένοι, a reference to a poem by Greek national poet Dionysios Solomos inspired by the Ottoman siege of Mesolonghi), barricaded themselves in and constructed a radio station using laboratories equipment) that repeatedly broadcast across Athens: "Here is Polytechneion! People of Greece, the Polytechneion is the flag bearer of our struggle and your struggle, our common struggle against the dictatorship and for democracy!"(Greek: Εδώ Πολυτεχνείο! Λαέ της Ελλάδας το Πολυτεχνείο είναι σημαιοφόρος του αγώνα μας, του αγώνα σας, του κοινού αγώνα μας ενάντια στη δικτατορία και για την Δημοκρατία transliterated as: Etho Polytechneio! Lae tis Elladas to Polytechneio einai simaioforos tou agona mas, tou agona sas, tou koinou agona mas enantia sti diktatoria kai gia tin Dimokratia). Leftist, later to be politician, Maria Damanaki was one of the major speakers. Soon thousands of workers and youngsters joined them protesting inside and outside of the "Athens Polytechnic".

In the early hours of November 17, 1973, the transitional government panicked, sending a tank crashing through the gates of the Athens Polytechnic. Soon after that, Markezinis himself had the humiliating task to request Papadopoulos to re-impose martial law. Prior to the crackdown, the city lights had been shut down, and the area was only lit by the campus lights, powered by the university generators. An AMX 30 Tank (still kept in a small armored unit museum in a military camp in Avlonas, not open to the public) crashed the rail gate of the Athens Polytechnic at around 03:00am. In unclear footage clandestinely filmed by a Dutch journalist, the tank is shown bringing down the main steel entrance to the campus to which people were clinging. Documentary evidence also survives, in recordings of the "Athens Polytechnic" radio transmissions from the occupied premises. In these a young man's voice is heard desperately asking the soldiers (whom he calls 'brothers in arms') surrounding the building complex to disobey the military orders and not to fight 'brothers protesting'. The voice carries on to an emotional outbreak, reciting the lyrics of the Greek National Anthem, until the tank enters the yard, at which time transmission ceases.

According to a contested official investigation undertaken after the fall of the Junta, no students of Athens Polytechnic were killed during the incident. Total recorded casualties amount to 24 civilians killed outside Athens Polytechnic campus. These include 19-year old Michael Mirogiannis, reportedly shot to death by officer G. Dertilis, high-school student Diomedes Komnenos, and a five-year old boy caught in the crossfire in the suburb of Zografou. The records of the trials held following the collapse of the Junta document the circumstances of the deaths of many civilians during the uprising, and although the number of dead has not been contested by historical research, it remains a subject of political controversy. In addition, hundreds of civilians were left injured during the events.
http://ocfp7.blogspot.com/2007/11/17-polytechnic-17-november.html

Thursday, October 30, 2008

10 songs for november

ΟΙ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΟΙ ΣΗΜΕΡΑ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΜΕΘΟΔΕΥΣΕΙΣ ΤΩΝ ΚΥΒΕΡΝΗΤΙΚΩΝ ΚΟΜΜΑΤΩΝ

ΟΣΑ ΔΕΝ ΠΕΡΝΑΕΙ Η ΚΥΒΕΡΝΗΣΗ ΤΑ ΚΑΝΕΙ… ΠΡΟΕΔΡΙΚΑ ΔΙΑΤΑΓΜΑΤΑ!
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Σύμφωνα με την κατεύθυνση που μπαίνει από τα δύο κόμματα εξουσίας την τελευταία δεκαπενταετία για συρρίκνωση των επαγγελματικών δικαιωμάτων και ρευστοποίηση της επαγγελματικής και εργασιακής προοπτικής και κατά τον τρόπο που οι σημερινοί μηχανικοί απέχουν πολύ από το πρότυπο του μηχανικού της δεκαετίας του ’80 (σχετικά με το εποπτικό ρόλο τους στην παραγωγή και την εξασφάλιση που τους παρείχε το επάγγελμά τους) αλλά καλούνται πλέον να στελεχώσουν πιο ειδικευμένες θέσεις εργασίας, είτε ως μισθωτοί εργαζόμενοι είτε μέσω Δελτίου Παροχής Υπηρεσιών, κατά ανάλογο τρόπο οι μελλοντικοί μηχανικοί θα κληθούν να αντιμετωπίσουν περαιτέρω υποβάθμιση και αμφισβήτηση του ρόλου τους στο χώρο παραγωγής αλλά και των επαγγελματικών προοπτικών που θα τους κατοχυρώνει το (ενιαίο;) πενταετές πτυχίο τους.
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πατήστε εδώ για περισσότερα

Monday, October 27, 2008

WIND ADSM (ΦΟΡΗΤΟ ΙΝΤΕΡΝΕΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΙΧΕΣ ΚΑΤΣΑΡΕΣ)

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ΜΟΥΦΑ ΤΟ WIND ADSM .ΜΗ ΔΙΑΝΟΗΘΕΙ ΚΑΝΕΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΟ ΠΑΡΕΙ.ΚΛΑΙΩ ΤΑ ΛΕΦΤΑ ΠΟΥ ΔΙΝΩ ΚΑΙ ΕΙΜΑΙ ΑΝΑΓΚΑΣΜΕΝΟΣ ΝΑ ΤΑ ΔΙΝΩ ΓΙΑ 9 ΜΗΝΕΣ ΑΚΟΜΑ ΕΞΑΙΤΙΑΣ ΤΟΥ
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ΜΗΝ ΠΙΣΤΕΨΕΤΕ ΤΙΣ ΤΑΧΥΤΗΤΕΣ ΠΟΥ ΘΑ ΣΑΣ ΥΠΟΣΧΕΘΟΥΝ ΟΙ ΑΣΧΕΤΟΙ ΥΠΑΛΛΗΛΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΜΑΓΑΖΙΩΝ ΤΗΣ WIND*.ΕΙΝΑΙ ΟΛΑ ΨΕΜΜΑΤΑ,ΕΚΤΟΣ ΑΠΟ ΕΞΑΙΡΕΤΙΚΑ ΣΠΑΝΙΕΣ ΠΕΡΙΠΤΩΣΕΙΣ...


*ΑΝΑΦΕΡΩ ΤΗΝ WIND ΚΑΙ ΟΧΙ ΤΙΣ ΑΛΛΕΣ ΕΤΑΙΡΙΕΣ ΚΙΝΗΤΗΣ ΤΗΛΕΦΩΝΙΑΣ ΠΟΥ ΠΡΟΣΦΕΡΟΥΝ INTERNET ,ΕΠΕΙΔΗ ΓΝΩΡΙΖΩ ΤΙΣ ΤΑΧΥΤΗΤΕΣ ΤΗΣ ΩΣ ΠΕΛΑΤΗΣ ΤΗΣ.ΕΙΜΑΙ ΣΙΓΟΥΡΟΣ ΟΤΙ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΑΛΛΕΣ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΕΣ ΘΑ ΠΡΟΣΦΕΡΟΥΝ ΤΟ ΙΔΙΟ ΣΚΑΤΑ ΤΑΧΥΤΗΤΕΣ ΧΩΡΙΣ ΝΑ ΕΝΗΜΕΡΩΝΟΥΝ ΤΟΥΣ ΣΥΝΔΡΟΜΗΤΕΣ ΤΟΥΣ ΓΙ'ΑΥΤΗ ΤΗ ΚΑΤΑΣΤΑΣΗ,ΟΠΩΣ Η WIND ΔΗΛΑΔΗ!!!......

-ΔΕΥΤΕΡΑ 27 ΟΚΤΩΒΡΙΟΥ ΩΡΑ 1:OO
ΧΡΕΙΑΣΤΗΚΑ 45 ΛΕΠΤΑ ΓΙΑ ΑΥΤΗ ΤΗΝ ΑΝΑΡΤΗΣΗ
ΜΕ ΜΕΣΟ ΟΡΟ ΤΑΧΥΤΗΤΑΣ 7 Kbps

Sunday, October 12, 2008

SARA WHO????

DECIDE WHO YOU ARE WITH.....

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A).SARA IS PHOTOGENIC


BUT HER INNER SELF IS LIKE THIS

B)THIS LITTLE BEAR IS ADORABLE

AND DOESN'T WANT TO BECOME A DECORATION IN SARA'S LIVING ROOM-
SARA PALIN

VOTE HER FOR MORE BLOOD,GUNS, EXORCISMS AND 21ST CENTURY INQUISITION....AND DON'T FORGET......FOR THE GLOBAL ECONOMY CRISIS
THE GUILTY ARE :THE POOR,THE ISLAM,THE BEARS,YOU,YOUR FAMILY,YOUR PC,
YOUR GIRLFRIEND,THE LEFT,MARX,THE MARX BROTHERS,BUDHA,RUSSIA,CHAVEZ,FIDEL CASTRO,THE ATHEISTS,THE THE,
OSAMA,SADDAM,ANADAMPAPADAM,THE DEVIL HIMSELF,THE BOOK OF APOCALYPSIS,APOCALYPTO MOVIE,APOCALYPSE NOW,JUDAS,JUDAS
PRIEST,THE BLACK PEOPLE,THE BLACK AND WHITE,THE CHILDREN,THE CHINA,THE CHINATOWN,THE HARLEM,THE PAPARIES MARITSAM'.............

Saturday, August 16, 2008

ΑΨΕΝΤΙ (ABSINTH-E)

Absinthe is traditionally a distilled, highly alcoholic (45%-75% ABV) beverage. It has similar effects to anise-flavored spirit derived from herbs, including the flowers and leaves of the herb Artemisia absinthium, also called wormwood. Absinthe is typically of a natural green color but is also produced in a clear style. It is often called "the Green Fairy". Although it is sometimes mistakenly called a liqueur, absinthe is not bottled with added sugar and is therefore classified as a liquor. Absinthe is unusual among spirits in that it is bottled at a high proof but is normally diluted with water when it is drunk. Absinthe originated in the canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland. It achieved great popularity as an alcoholic drink in late 19th- and early 20th-century France, particularly among Parisian artists and writers. Due in part to its association with bohemian culture, absinthe was opposed by social conservatives and prohibitionists. Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud, Vincent van Gogh, Oscar Wilde, and Aleister Crowley were all notorious "bad men" of that day who were (or were thought to be) devotees of the Green Fairy. Absinthe was portrayed as a dangerously addictive psychoactive drug. The chemical thujone, present in small quantities, was blamed for its alleged harmful effects. By 1915, absinthe had been banned in the United States and in most European countries except the United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Although absinthe was vilified, no evidence has shown it to be any more dangerous than ordinary liquor. Its psychoactive properties, apart from those of alcohol, had been much exaggerated. A revival of absinthe began in the 1990s, when countries in the European Union began to reauthorize its manufacture and sale. As of February 2008, nearly 200 brands of absinthe were being produced in a dozen countries, most notably in France, Switzerland, Spain, and the Czech Republic.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absinthe
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PICASSO COCTAIL

40 ml. Absinth
40 ml. apple juice
20 ml. triple sec
15ml. fresh lime juice
15 ml. glycose syrup

We add all the stuff in a shaker ,with many ice ,and we stir powerfully.Strain in a " high ball"glass in which we have add
ice.

We decorate with lime ,apple.....
simple and delicious.....

RED OR DREAD

40 ml. Absinth
30 ml. Berentzen liqueur
20 ml Creme de pineapple
50 ml cranberry juice
15 ml. fresh lime juice
We shake good all the stuff in a shaker ,with ice.
Strain in a " high ball"glass in which we have add fresh
ice.
We decorate with spiral lime .
Cheers!

for more cocktails
enter here
or here

Wednesday, August 13, 2008

BLOGDIESI1 IS OUT FOR SUMMER

KYTHNOS (Cyclades Islands,Greece)
-SYROS(Cyclades Islands,Greece)
-TINOS(Cyclades Islands,Greece)
-ANDROS(Cyclades Islands.Greece)
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Friday, August 1, 2008

LENA PLATONOS (ΛΕΝΑ ΠΛΑΤΩΝΟΣ)

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Lena Platonos has contributed much to the Greek electronic music scene
with records such as Maskes Iliou, Gallup, Lepidoptera,
at a time (mid 80s) when this kind of electronic narration of
the Greek -and often of her personal-reality did not have the impact
one would expect.
Perhaps the exclusive use of analog electronic musical instruments was
not so tangible in Greece during that period; however, and apart from
that, we should also pay attention to the textual aspect of these
compositions.
Songs about ‘emigredes’ (immigrants), the absolute power of computers
in our daily lives and the hermetic guard of our private spaces, through
the unique narration skill and poeticalness that only Lena Platonos has
achieved, give us the image of an artist who worked ahead of her time,
with an exceptional talent for conceiving issues that were to conquer our
TV screens and newspapers many years later.
http://www.last.fm/music/lena+platonos/+wiki
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http://rapidshare.com/files/102512052/Platonos_Lena_-_Hmerologia.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/119002502/Lena_Platwnos_-Gkalop.rar.html
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http://www.myspace.com/lenaplatonos

Wednesday, July 23, 2008

XAINIDES (ΧΑΪΝΗΔΕΣ) ΔΙΣΚΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ (CHAINIDES)


Chainides (Greek: Χαΐνηδες) is a Cretan folk music group who are inspired by the vast legacy of traditional Cretan music and whose lyrics borrow words from the Cretan Greek dialect. The group's name comes from the word chainis (Greek: χαΐνης), meaning the fugitive rebel.
The group was formed in March 1990 by a group of friends, namely Dimitris Apostolakis, Dimitris Zacharioudakis, Giorgos Laodikis, Miltos Pashalidis and Kallia Spyridaki. Most of them were then students at the University of Crete. Their discographical debut was in 1991 with the album Chainides that was warmly received by the public. Chainides rapidly grew to seven members and released three more albums before being temporarily dissolved in 1997. One year later, Dimitris Apostolakis and Dimitris Zaharioudakis reinstated the group that was joined by the new members Maria Koti, Alexis Nonis, Periklis Tsoukalas and Antonis Skamnakis.
Over the years, Chainides have collaborated with several well-known musicians and singers. They have performed in several locations both in Greece and abroad and have recorded seven studio albums. In their live performances, Chainides blend their own compositions and songs with new arrangements of themes and songs from traditions such as those of Turkey, Afghanistan and Bulgaria.

Group Members

Dimitris Apostolakis - Cretan lyre, vocals
Dimitris Zaharioudakis - acoustic guitar, vocals
Maria Koti - vocals
Alexis Nonis - percussion
Mihalis Nikopoulos - mantolin, bouzouki
Dimitris Mprentas - flute
Antonis Skamnakis - double bass, electric bass

 Discography

  • 1991 - Χαΐνηδες (Chainides)
  • 1993 - Κόσμος κι όνειρο είναι ένα (Kosmos ki oniro ine ena)
  • 1994 - Με κόντρα τον καιρό (Me kontra ton kero)
  • 1997 - Το μεγάλο ταξίδι (To megalo taxidi)
  • 2000 - Ο ξυπόλητος πρίγκηπας (O xipolitos prigipas), double album
  • 2002 - Δελτίο ειδήσεων (Deltio idiseon), 3 songs
  • 2005 - Ο γητευτής και το δρακοδόντι (O giteftis kai to drakodonti), double album
  • 2007 - Ο Καραγκιόζης στη Γιουροβίζιον (O Karagiozis stin Eurovision)
  • 2008 - Η κάθοδος των Σαλτιμπάγκων (I kathodos ton Saltimpagon)
  • 2011 - Αγροκτηνοτροφικά και Μητροπολιτικά (Agroktinotrofika & Mitropolitika), double album
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click here to download their first 7 albums via torrent -(7 active seeders) + Η κάθοδος των Σαλτιμπάγκων (I kathodos ton Saltimpagon)

Ο Καραγκιόζης στη Γιουροβίζιον (O Karagiozis stin Eurovision) download (will be added soon)
Αγροκτηνοτροφικά και Μητροπολιτικά (Agroktinotrofika & Mitropolitika), 2cd  download


Monday, July 14, 2008

Rammstein - Left or Right?

A short analysis on the politics of Rammstein

I thought this might be of interest for assorted lefts. I've written this article for a music fanzine in my own area, but it certainly has political relevance, especially for fans of the German industrial metal group. The politics of Rammstein have been debated for years, but those who I have spoken with have always been a little unsure of the actual stance of the band. Hopefully this article will go towards clearing this debate up in some ways. Any constructive criticism is appreciated.

RAMMSTEIN - LEFT OR RIGHT?

Politics are always tied to music, whether it be in the lyrics of your favourite songs or the financial backing of the music company promoting the artist. Many artists repeatedly use their abilities to express political opinion, and as a result of this their fan base is moulded partly through such ideas. However, German industrial heavy metal act Rammstein have consistently found themselves courting both ends of the political spectrum since they formed in 1993. This is due to a number of reasons : not least that the combination of their reputation as the world’s biggest selling German-speaking band as well as their stirring, almost orchestral, lyrics and music have resulted in the modern day acolytes of Hitler and Nazism embracing the band with little enquiry into the band’s political leanings.
Therefore, I am attempting to look at the truth behind Rammstein, and where they see themselves upon the political spectrum, if anywhere.

FASCIST SUPPORT

There is no doubt that within fascism internationally, there is a great deal of support for Rammstein. A lot of this support is simply derived from the fact that the band are German, without any real delving into either the contents of the lyrics or the views of the band itself. For instance, on the well-known fascist message board (Details of nazi site removed by editor in line with our 'No Platform' policy), FarStar88 states, “I'm from South Africa and have recently been introduced to a German Rock band called Rummstein (I think that's how it's spelt). I don't understand the lyrics but the feeling that the music conjures for me is pure Germanic strength and pride.”. FarStar88 later posted again in a darker fashion, “I want to go into battle with that music blaring over some serious speakers. It'll scare the **** out of the Niggers over here.”

It is interesting to note that although there is an underlying number of people, including fascists, who believe that Rammstein may have their roots in White Power music, there is no well-known critical study into the band which proves that this is the case. There is no doubt that the band have been criticised for flirting with fascist imagery, the most famous incident when they used clips from the work of Leni Riefenstahl for their music video “Stripped”. Critics have also jumped quickly to brand the band politically - Jam Showbiz (April 2001) described their album Mutter as "music to invade Poland to”.

THE RAMMSTEIN DEFENCE

Rammstein over the years have courted their share of controversy, once spending a night in a US jail back in 1999 after using a giant dildo at a show in Massachusetts. They have consistently by their own admission pushed the boundaries of good taste, enraging Christian morality campaigners wherever they go, particularly in 2004 when they were accused of trivialising the Armin Meiwes cannibalism case in their video for “Mein Teil“. They were also on the end of a vicious press backlash after the Columbine school massacre when it was discovered that Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold - the two boys who carried out the shootings - were discovered to be huge fans of the band. Due to pressure by right-wing Christian protest groups, the band issued a press release, stating, "The members of Rammstein express their condolences and sympathy to all affected by the recent tragic events in Denver. They wish to make it clear that they have no lyrical content or political beliefs that could have possibly influenced such behaviour. Additionally, members of Rammstein have children of their own, in whom they continually strive to instill healthy and non-violent values."

It is also interesting to note that after the Belsan hostage crisis, the Russian state claimed that the Chechen rebels responsible had been listening to Rammstein throughout the siege, “listened to German hard rock group Rammstein on personal stereos during the siege to keep themselves edgy and fired up." This however was never independently verified.

The truth is that despite their “on the edge” stage shows and provocative material, Rammstein have always unequivocally denied that they are nazis or have fascist sympathies. The use of Leni Riefenstahl’s works in “Stripped” caused the media to publicly question Rammstein’s political allegiances. Angered by the claims by the press, Rammstein wrote and recorded “Links 2 3 4”, designed as a riposte towards the insinuations of fascist ideology. Kruspe-Bernstein states that the song means, "'my heart beats on the left, two, three, four.' It's simple. If you want to put us in a political category, we're on the left side, and that's the reason we made the song."

NO POLITICS PLEASE - WE'RE RAMMSTEIN

The one conclusion we can take from this is that Rammstein have been mainly caught up in a political debate that they have no real interest in whatsoever. They have sadly been branded due to their own tendency to push morality to the limit and damn the consequences. Rammstein will undoubtedly be the subject of much more controversy as they continue to produce music, but one thing is for certain - they will live by their own motto, which according to drummer Doom Schneider is simply : “Do your own thing. And overdo it!”. Rammstein are hardly active Trotskyists, but let’s be fair - they’re not fascists.

http://www.indymedia.ie/article/70014?print_page=true
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Friday, June 6, 2008

Antonio Gramsci

-This month and these days I am working as an actor in Puccini's opera"TURANDOT"at the Herod theatre in Athens,Greece.It is widely known that Puccini started work on his Turandot in 1920, during the last days of the Kingdom of Italy. The work went slowly, and by the time it was finished, Mussolini had assumed power. (The Fascist party was founded in 1919 and took over the government in 1922.) Although he was at heart a royalist and paid litted attention to politics, Puccini welcomed Mussolini at first and approached him about building a National Opera House in Rome. However, the dictator said there was not enough money to make it as grand as it needed to be for his vision of Italy. He did make Puccini an honorary member of the Fascist party..So instead of making an article about Puccini I prefer to make one about Antonio Gramsci (January 23, 1891 – April 27, 1937) , an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. A founding member and onetime leader of the Communist Party of Italy, who was imprisoned by Mussolini's Fascist regime. His writings are heavily concerned with the analysis of culture and political leadership and he is notable as a highly original thinker within the Marxist tradition. He is renowned for his concept of cultural hegemony as a means of maintaining the state in a capitalist society.



biography

by Frank Rosengarten

Antonio Gramsci was born on January 22, 1891 in Ales in the province of Cagliari in Sardinia. He was the fourth of seven children born to Francesco Gramsci and Giuseppina Marcias. His relationship with his father was never very close, but he had a strong affection and love for his mother, whose resilience, gift for story-telling and pungent humor made a lasting impression on him. Of his six siblings, Antonio enjoyed a mutual interest in literature with his younger sister Teresina, and seems to have always felt a spiritual kinship with his two brothers, Gennaro, the oldest of the Gramsci children, and Carlo, the youngest. Gennaro’s early embrace of socialism contributed significantly to Antonio’s political development.

In 1897, Antonio’s father was suspended and subsequently arrested and imprisoned for five years for alleged administrative abuses. Shortly thereafter, Giuseppina and her children moved to Ghilarza, where Antonio attended elementary school. Sometime during these years of trial and near poverty, he fell from the arms of a servant, to which his family attributed his hunched back and stunted growth: he was an inch or two short of five feet in height.

At the age of eleven, after completing elementary school, Antonio worked for two years in the tax office in Ghilarza, in order to help his financially strapped family. Because of the five-year absence of Francesco, these were years of bitter struggle. Nevertheless, he continued to study privately and eventually returned to school, where he was judged to be of superior intelligence, as indicated by excellent grades in all subjects.

Antonio continued his education, first in Santu Lussurgiu, about ten miles from Ghilarza, then, after graduating from secondary school, at the Dettori Lyceum in Cagliari, where he shared a room with his brother Gennaro, and where he came into contact for the first time with organized sectors of the working class and with radical and socialist politics. But these were also years of privation, during which Antonio was partially dependent on his father for financial support, which came only rarely. In his letters to his family, he accused his father repeatedly of unpardonable procrastination and neglect. His health deteriorated, and some of the nervous symptoms that were to plague him at a later time were already in evidence.

1911 was an important year in young Gramsci’s life. After graduating from the Cagliari lyceum, he applied for and won a scholarship to the University of Turin, an award reserved for needy students from the provinces of the former Kingdom of Sardinia. Among the other young people to compete for this scholarship was Palmiro Togliatti, future general secretary of the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and, with Gramsci and several others, among the most capable leaders of that embattled Party. Antonio enrolled in the Faculty of Letters. At the University he met Angelo Tasca and several of the other men with whom he was to share struggles first in the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and then, after the split that took place in January 1921, in the PCI.

At the University, despite years of terrible suffering due to inadequate diet, unheated flats, and constant nervous exhaustion, Antonio took a variety of courses, mainly in the humanities but also in the social sciences and in linguistics, to which he was sufficiently attracted to contemplate academic specialization in that subject. Several of his professors, notably Matteo Bartoli, a linguist, and Umberto Cosmo, a Dante scholar, became personal friends.

In 1915, despite great promise as an academic scholar, Gramsci became an active member of the PSI, and began a journalistic career that made him among the most feared critical voices in Italy at that time. His column in the Turin edition of Avanti!, and his theatre reviews were widely read and influential. He regularly spoke at workers’ study-circles on various topics, such as the novels of Romain Rolland, for whom he felt a certain affinity, the Paris Commune, the French and Italian revolutions and the writings of Karl Marx. It was at this time, as the war dragged on and as Italian intervention became a bloody reality, Gramsci assumed a somewhat ambivalent stance, although his basic position was that the Italian socialists should use intervention as an occasion to turn Italian national sentiment in a revolutionary rather than a chauvinist direction. It was also at this time, in 1917 and 1918, that he began to see the need for integration of political and economic action with cultural work, which took form as a proletarian cultural association in Turin.

The outbreak of the Bolshevik revolution in October 1917 further stirred his revolutionary ardor, and for the remainder of the war and in the years thereafter Gramsci identified himself closely, although not entirely uncritically, with the methods and aims of the Russian revolutionary leadership and with the cause of socialist transformation throughout the advanced capitalist world.

In the spring of 1919, Gramsci, together with Angelo Tasca, Umberto Terracini and Togliatti, founded L'Ordine Nuovo: Rassegna Settimanale di Cultura Socialista (The New Order: A Weekly Review of Socialist Culture), which became an influential periodical (on a weekly and later on a bi-monthly publishing schedule) for the following five years among the radical and revolutionary Left in Italy. The review gave much attention to political and literary currents in Europe, the USSR, and the United States.

For the next few years, Gramsci devoted most of his time to the development of the factory council movement, and to militant journalism, which led in January 1921 to his siding with the Communist minority within the PSI at the Party’s Livorno Congress. He became a member of the PCI’s central committee, but did not play a leading role until several years later. He was among the most prescient representatives of the Italian Left at the inception of the fascist movement, and on several occasions predicted that unless unified action were taken against the rise of Mussolini’s movement, Italian democracy and Italian socialism would both suffer a disastrous defeat.

The years 1921 to 1926, years “of iron and fire” as he called them, were eventful and productive. They were marked in particular by the year and a half he lived in Moscow as an Italian delegate to the Communist International (May 1922- November 1923), his election to the Chamber of Deputies in April 1924, and his assumption of the position of general secretary of the PCI. His personal life was also filled with significant experiences, the chief one being his meeting with and subsequent marriage to Julka Schucht (1896-1980), a violinist and member of the Russian Communist Party whom he met during his stay in Russia. Antonio and Julka had two sons, Delio (1924-1981), and Giuliano, born in 1926, who lives today in Moscow with his wife.

On the evening of November 8, 1926, Gramsci was arrested in Rome and, in accordance with a series of “Exceptional Laws” enacted by the fascist-dominated Italian legislature, committed to solitary confinement at the Regina Coeli prison. This began a ten-year odyssey, marked by almost constant physical and psychic pain as a result of a prison experience that culminated, on April 27, 1937, in his death from a cerebral hemorrhage. No doubt the stroke that killed him was but the final outcome of years and years of illnesses that were never properly treated in prison.

Yet as everyone familiar with the trajectory of Gramsci’s life knows, these prison years were also rich with intellectual achievement, as recorded in the Notebooks he kept in his various cells that eventually saw the light after World War II, and as recorded also in the extraordinary letters he wrote from prison to friends and especially to family members, the most important of whom was not his wife Julka but rather a sister-in-law, Tania Schucht. She was the person most intimately and unceasingly involved in his prison life, since she had resided in Rome for many years and was in a position to provide him not only with a regular exchange of thoughts and feelings in letter form but with articles of clothing and with numerous foods and medicines he sorely needed to survive the grinding daily routine of prison life.

After being sentenced on June 4, 1928, with other Italian Communist leaders, to 20 years, 4 months and 5 days in prison, Gramsci was consigned to a prison in Turi, in the province of Bari, which turned out to be his longest place of detention (June 1928 -- November 1933). Thereafter he was under police guard at a clinic in Formia, from which he was transferred in August 1935, always under guard, to the Quisisana Hospital in Rome. It was there that he spent the last two years of his life. Among the people, in addition to Tania, who helped him either by writing to him or by visiting him when possible, were his mother Giuseppina, who died in 1933, his brother Carlo, his sisters Teresina and Grazietta, and his good friend, the economist Piero Sraffa, who throughout Gramsci’s prison ordeal provided a crucial and indispenable service to Gramsci. Sraffa used his personal funds and numerous professional contacts that were necessary in order to obtain the books and periodicals Gramsci needed in prison. Gramsci had a prodigious memory, but it is safe to say that without Sraffa’s assistance, and without the intermediary role often played by Tania, the Prison Notebooks as we have them would not have come to fruition.

Gramsci’s intellectual work in prison did not emerge in the light of day until several years after World War II, when the PC began publishing scattered sections of the Notebooks and some of the approximately 500 letters he wrote from prison. By the 1950s, and then with increasing frequency and intensity, his prison writings attracted interest and critical commentary in a host of countries, not only in the West but in the so-called third world as well. Some of his terminology became household words on the left, the most important of which, and the most complex, is the term “hegemony” as he used it in his writings and applied to the twin task of understanding the reasons underlying both the successes and the failures of socialism on a global scale, and of elaborating a feasible program for the realization of a socialist vision within the really existing conditions that prevailed in the world. Among these conditions were the rise and triumph of fascism and the disarray on the left that had ensued as a result of that triumph. Also extremely pertinent, both theoretically and practically, were such terms and phrases as “organic intellectual,” “national popular,” and “historical bloc” which, even if not coined by Gramsci, acquired such radically new and original implications in his writing as to constitute effectively new formulations in the realm of political philosophy.
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